Monday, May 25, 2020
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Introduction Prisons are dependably a subject numerous individuals keep away from what it may look on the outside; prisons are usually seen as startling and dim from their physical attributes. Although for those who have committed a crime and are being held captive for their criminal offences, their lives are forever changing. The main goal of any federal prison is to ensure safety of the public, remove the menaces ones out of society, and to protect society. Prisoners have been changing their perspective on life, while living in a large imposed building with high brick walls and barb wire topped off with sharp razors. The main existence of prisons is to keep the menaces out of society. Uncompromising regulations and stern schedules are in placed to structure a prisoners life and change them. But some rules in placed in the past were seen as inhumane and wrong. Consistently, law implementations and powers have changed the purpose of prison. The purpose of prisons was to have the wrongdoers conc eded discipline for the crimes they have committed. Numerous detainees amid the 18th century were traumatized as a result of corporal punishment and the consideration of execution; the consequences of recuperation were exceedingly unsuccessful. In the long run, it was understood that detainees were not being rehabilitated. Erving Goffman, a Canadian sociologist and writer, spent most of his life studying the lives of inmates and mental patients within an American institution.Show MoreRelatedPrisons And Its Effects On Society1681 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAbstract Prisons are vital in multiple ways because they contain some of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s most dangerous criminals. While prison put people at ease knowing that offenders are serving time for their crime. It also runs the risk of making an offender who is non-violent prior to incarceration extremely violent once their time has been served. In society not everyone can be the model citizen that we wish everyone was however there are individuals who commit heinous crimes and for that they must pay forRead MoreEssay about AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Prisons and Their Effects On Society1529 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesto deal with their criminals in ways that help both society and those that commit the crimes. Imprisonment has historically been the popular solution. However, there are many instances in which people are sent to prison that would be better served for community service, rehab, or some other form of punishment. Prison affects more than just the prisoner; the families, friends, employers, and communities of the incarcerated also pay a price. Prison as a punishment has its pros and cons; although itRead MoreEssay on Cost of Incarceration1308 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessomeone in prison. Incarceration serves as a punishment for criminals due to their actions against the law. It is a solution for keeping the public safe. Prisoners fo llow a strict rules and schedules while following the culture within the walls among other prisoners. As a result of their crimes, convicts lose their freedom and are place among others who suffer the same fate. Crime is the cause of this establishment, but what are the effects of incarceration on convicts, their relations, and society? AsRead MorePrison And The Prison System Essay1472 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdiscouragement for humans is through the prison system. Because of this, these humans or inmates, are sentenced to spend a significant part of their life in a confined, small room. With that being said, the prison life can leave a remarkable toll on the inmates life in many different categories. The first and arguably most important comes in the form of mental health. Living in prison with have a great impact on the psychological part of your life. For example, The prison life is a very much different wayRead MoreThe United States Prison System996 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUnited S tates prison population has quadrupled to 2.4 million inmates; with nearly half of the inmates in federal prison serving time for drug offenses. The majority of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s general population has been hoodwinked into believing that the prison system helps prevent crime, but the side effects of mass incarceration is like spilling gasoline on a burning car. The side effects of fabricating additional prison complexes for the sole purpose of preventing crime will continue to deem societies ignoranceRead MorePrison Reform : Effective And Reliable Correctional System1352 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPrison reforms are necessary to better the conditions for prisoners to enable the creation of an efficient and reliable correctional system. In reforming the prison system, it is essential for alternatives to incarceration to be explored (UNODC). There has been a sizeable escalation in the number of individuals serving prison sentences in American prisons. In fact, America has the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s highest number of incarceration cases with over 2.2 million Americans in prison. The increased number of inmatesRead MoreReduced Time from Prison1440 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTime from Prison Prisons are correctional facilities where offenders are incarcerated as punishment and deterrent from engaging in other criminal activities. It serves justice for victims of criminal offenses and provides a chance for the offender to reflect, and with prison time; they will become better citizens of society. This however, may not always be the case. If an inmate exhibits understanding of good behavior and structure, a prisoner may not serve his or her full sentence in prison. They mayRead MoreThe Reasons For Why Recidivism Occurs1441 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn most places around the world there are prisons set up where people go after committing a crime. Now the point of prisons is to reform a person so when they come out of prison they will be a productive member of society and not the criminal they once were. This does not occur most of the time. In fact, the exact opposite has occurred so much that there is a term for it now. That term is recidivism, which is when a person goes back to a life of crime after some sort of reform. There are many reasonsRead MoreProblematic California Prison System Essay849 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCalifornia has one of the most dysfunctional and problematic prison system in US. Over the last 30 years, California prison increased eightfolds (201). California Department of Correctional and Rehabilitation (CDCR) does little to reform prisoners and serve as human warehouse rather than a correction institution. Californias prison system fails the people it imprisons and society it tries to protect. In many cases, Californias prison system exacerbates the pre-existing problems and aids in theRead MoreDo We Really Need Prisons1599 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDO WE REALLY NEED PRISONS The simple meaning prison is a place for the confinement of persons in law detention, espicially people who are convicted of crimes according to The American Heritage of the English Language (2000). The history of prison almost as old as history itself. At first, prison were not used as a punishment but as a place where people who were sentenced to capital or corporal punishment were kept for a short period of time. But as the time passed, it turned into a legal punishment
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Animal cruelty is an ongoing issue in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. When we listen to the news and hear about these animals being starved, beaten, and treated poorly our hearts drop and we get a lump in our throat holding back the tears. We see these animals suffer, we see the pain in their eyes begging for our help, we want to put an end to this but we fail to see the bigger picture. Animal cruelty is a more severe and extreme than we think it is. Animal cruelty just is not owners beating their pets. Animal cruelty is animal testing. Scientist performs experiments on these animals that have no voice, no control, no way to stop what is happening to them. These animals are helpless, innocent creatures that have no idea why this is happening to them. These animals are enduring pain they are being deformed, having body parts mutilated, and many are killed. There are many organizations today such as PETA fighting to improve animal welfare but cruelty still continues. Animal testing needs to be completely banned or modified so the animals do not suffer. Scientific experiments on animals are cruel and unethical. These tests done on animals do not yield positive results that are beneficial to humans. Animal testing has been round since early Greek and Roman civilization. Animal dissection was performed in order to obtain more knowledge of the human anatomy. Animal anatomy is similar to human anatomy but while performing these operations on animals. Physicians feel no sympathy for theseShow MoreRelatedThe Evolution of Anticruelty Laws950 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSoon, many groups were concerned about how animals were being treated. Anticruelty laws were first passed in Great Britain. The United States quickly followed, responding to the animal welfare groups; insisting that the government needed to act to prevent unnecessary cruelty to animals (Judson 20). This movement grew rapidly across the United States. In 1829, New York passed the first anticruelty law prohibiting the malicious injuring or killing or farm animals such as horses, oxen, cattle or sheep.Read MoreArgument for Stopping Animal Abuse Essay2111 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesExecutive Summary Every 60 seconds an animal is abused. Dogs, cats, horses, and many other types of animals are being neglected and tortured everyday, yet resulting in few and minor consequences for the perpetrators. Animal abuse is prevalent in the United States and has been an ongoing issue since the 1970s, and prior to. Society as a whole has chosen to avoid the facts and arguments about animal cruelty, because to some it is seen as acceptable and typical. It becomes much more frowned uponRead MoreImportance Of Animal Testing1726 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAnimal testing: Is it necessary? People take medicine, and they wear makeup. Most people own one or two or maybe more pets. Some people love their pets as if they were their own children. Pets are loved and taken care of. They are rescued and adopted. But do people know that they are treated the opposite in a laboratory? It is estimated that every year, 26 million animals are used for scientific and commercial testing in the United States. There are many reasons animals are used for testing. SomeRead MoreAnimal Rights And The Ethical Treatment Of Animals1267 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswhether or not animals should be allowed to be used as subjects in research, entertainment, or clothing is one of the most controversial issues known in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society (Parks 21). Through time, animal rights have acquired several different definitions and opinions from people. Regarding their belief about the true meaning of animal rights, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), a largely recognized animal rights activist organization, states: Animal rights means that animals deserve certainRead MoreThe Importance Of Animal Testing1779 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesDid you know animal testing is cruel?, it puts animals lives in jeopardy and the tests are not always accurate, it needs to be stopped. Abraham once said Ã¢â¬Å"I am in favor of animal rights as well as human rights. That is the way of a whole human beingÃ¢â¬ (https://www.consumerfreedom.com/2008/10/3754-abraham-lincoln-was-not-an-animal-rights-activist/). I do not believe animal testing is right, it hurts the animal and the experiments are not accurate, we should try to make this process more safe and calmRead MoreEssay on Animal Rights: Turning the Tables2311 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesa strong impulse to see it tried on him personally.Ã¢â¬ Many animal activists see a strong comparison between animals used for research or entertainment and slaves (Day, 1994). Every year millions of animals are killed while being used for testing and entertainment. Some may say that animals do not have emotions so using them for these types of activities is acceptable. In spite of that, a huge question that arises is whether or not animals should have rights. This appears to be a controversial topicRead MoreAnimal Testing Is Cruel And Unusual Punishment2041 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesan emotional debate over the use of animals in pharmaceutical research. The core question is whether animals have moral rights and if they should be accepted and protected by humans. This is widely philosophical question, but the answer has many possible consequences. For example, if any animal of any species has a right to life, then should it be wrong to kill them? If animals have a right to freedom, then is it be wrong to hold them in captivity? If animals have a right to happiness and securityRead MoreThe Use Of Non Human Tests Subjects For Experimentation And Research Studies3837 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesDefinition Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, is the use of non-human test subjects for experimentation and research studies (2). This definition is very broad because it is used in numerous fields such as drug testing, brain functionality, effects of food additives, pesticides, DNA modification, xenotransplantation, cosmetic testing, cancer research, AIDs research and many more. Overall, animal testing is a professional conflict, but it can also be considered as a personal conflictRead MoreEssay about The Debate of Animal Testing in Laboratories2402 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesThe Debate of Animal Testing in Laboratories Debating over the animal rights movement has raised questions and concerns for many years. Although animal research has been the cause of many medical breakthroughs, is it morally and ethically right to put animals in these kinds of situations? This is one of the underlying questions that must be solved before it is too late. There has already been too much violence and harm caused by the opposing views of this argument. Shouts of protests and riotsRead MoreUnderstanding Psychology And Childhood Cancer Essay2136 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesimplemented in the later in different studies2, 3, 4 . In addition, poverty, malnutrition, unhygienic living conditions, poor supportive care, financial support, training of health professionals, cultural, educational and socio-economic problems cause ongoing hurdle in medical cure and may contribute difference of survival rate. These play an important role in emergence of psychosocial problems in children suffering from cancer. Different types of cancer in children are acute lymphoblastic leukemia, wilmÃ¢â¬â¢s
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Unemployment Essay, Research Paper The term unemployment means to be without a occupation but actively looking for one. Throughout the old ages the unemployment rate has fluctuated, this was caused by the alterations in aggregative demand for the concluding merchandise. There are three types of unemployment, frictional, structural, and lacking demand. These types of unemployment and the unemployment rate in general have changing effects on gender and races. Unemployment causes jobs for the economic system with loses to production, but it besides provides benefits, from workers who are able to upgrade their places and wages. Frictional unemployment is caused by the normal turnover in the labour market and the clip it takes to happen a new occupation. It arises from short-run abnormalities in the demand for labour by peculiar industries, which occur apart from general cyclical fluctuations. An illustration of workers who experience frictional unemployment are dressing makers, whose services are needed more to bring fort h seasonal vesture. We will write a custom essay sample on Unemployment Essay Research Paper The term unemployment or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page When the season is over there is no longer a demand for their services, until production starts for the following season. Structural unemployment occurs when workers lack the needed accomplishments necessary for the available places. Alternatively of a individual labour market, there are a big figure of sub-markets for peculiar occupations that have specialized accomplishments. Structural unemployment occurs chiefly because of displacements in the demand for labour, in combination with inflexible pay rates and immobile workers. Deficient-demand unemployment is a instance where the demand for labour throughout the full labour force has decreased. This is a consequence of unequal aggregative demand in the economic system as a whole. Low aggregative demand for end product leads straight to low demand for labour. Employers who need to cut labour costs in response to the low demand of out put mu st either layoff workers or offer early retirement inducements. The pattern of cut downing pay rates is normally uneffective. It causes employees to impeach the employer of taking advantage of the impermanent diminution in demand to pay lower rewards. This in bend causes a diminution in morale and productiveness. Time periods of high unemployment lead to recessions. During a recession the full clip unemployment rate rises 2 to 4 points, increasing the entire figure of unemployed by 3 million. With such a high figure of the population unemployed it causes a low figure of end product produced my industries, and with the decrease of income there are less people in the economic system disbursement money. This besides leads to a decrease in authorities income that was received from income revenue enhancement. One benefit from unemployment is the publicity of some workers who are able to increase their pay and productiveness by happening better occupations Unemployment is distributed really unevenly throughout the labour force. Laborers have a much higher likely goon of being unemployed than white-collar workers. The distribution of unemployment throughout labourers is besides uneven. Young black adolescents experience the most important additions in unemployment during a recession. The unemploymen t rate for all inkinesss is more than double the rates for Whites. Work force and adult females besides experience a difference during recessions. Work forces are normally hired in higher paying cyclically sensitive occupations, whereas adult females are disproportionately employed in less cyclically sensitive places, like clerical occupations. The highest difference in the unemployment rate is in age. The unemployment rate of adolescents is three times higher than grownups. Adolescents have less experience and lower paying occupations. The high unemployment rate for adolescents is attributed to frictional unemployment. A bulk of these adolescents are still pupils. .
Friday, April 10, 2020
Examinnig The Social Work Intervention Practice Social Work Essay Essay Evidence suggests that modern-day societal work pattern is faced with the quandary of how to direct its attempts chiefly to the hapless and needy in the UK and at the same clip to prosecute in societal public assistance policy to assist advance societal alteration. Harmonizing to Okitikpi and Aymer s ( 2003 ) societal work professionals working with African refugees are frequently defeated and ill resourced to pull off households who suffer from hard lifestyle experiences due to poverty and societal exclusions. Besides Okitikpi and Aymer ( 2003 ) are of the position that jobs of poorness and working in partnership with African households alleged of kid maltreatment or ill-treatment would be better and easier managed should societal workers engage in unfastened direct intercessions. Bernard A ; Gupta ( 2008 ) highlights the troubles societal workers face when measuring and doing intercessions sing African kids and their households whose civilizations differ from the bulk white popula tion in the UK. Therefore the statement that the mission of societal work is to advance societal alteration and alleviate poorness in society by prosecuting with societal public assistance policy instead than intercessions at household degrees is presently the pivot of strong argument. The term societal work intercession as defined by IFSW: We will write a custom essay sample on Examinnig The Social Work Intervention Practice Social Work Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Examinnig The Social Work Intervention Practice Social Work Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Examinnig The Social Work Intervention Practice Social Work Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Usually describes work undertaken with persons, households, groups and communities. In this context the term is to cover the usage of societal work cognition and accomplishments when utilizing it within a societal attention administration to ease the proviso of services and pattern consistent with the Codes of Practice and with criterions of service and pattern, and to advance societal inclusion and life chances of people utilizing the services IFSW ( 2000 ) . 4.1 Types of Social Work Intervention Harmonizing to Elde-Woodward ( 2002 ) , there are three cardinal methods or phases of intercession. The first method of intercession, Elde-Woodward describes as macro societal work intercession which involves directing societal work pattern to society or communities as a whole. This type of societal work pattern includes policy forming and protagonism on a national or international graduated table. The 2nd method of intercession is mezzo societal work pattern, which involves working with bureaus, little organisations, and other little groups straight or indirectly related to societal work pattern to do policies or developing plans for a peculiar community. The 3rd method of intercession is the Micro societal work pattern which involves offering direct service to persons and households. Hartnett et Al ( 2005 ) research on the function perceptual experiences of societal workers and societal work pupils shows that merely really few really prosecute in policy-practice that focal point on societal policy preparation and protagonism. There are a broad assortment of activities that falls under the class of societal work pattern and societal work professionals plants in many different scenes of employment. Basically societal workers engage in clinical pattern, find themselves working with persons or households. However, societal workers who serve in community pattern are engage with the mezzo or macro phases of societal work. Spratt et Al ( 2004 ) findings shows that societal work intercession with persons or households is the most popular and effectual method of intercession that conveying approximately societal alteration in single lives. Social work intercession aims to assist kids or households to place, and to set up appropriate relationships with societal workers that will heighten their support. The intent of the intercession is diverse and ranges from increasing life accomplishments or altering behavior to increase life options and to get by with altering life state of affairss and passages ( Smale, Tuson a nd Statham, 2000 ) . 4.2 Identifying and admiting kid maltreatment Many schools of idea argue that societal workers could help households populating in poorness to place issues of kid maltreatment by demoing empathy, set uping working relationships and prosecuting in appropriate intercessions. In any of the state of affairss there are a figure of factors doing African households populating in poorness to be alleged of maltreating or mistreating their kids. Some of these factors are hapless parenting patterns, deficiency of cognition about the Torahs refering in the state of abode and ethno-centric favoritism and racism ( Elder-Woodward, 2002 ) . Child maltreatment instances referred by other bureaus for the attending of local authorization societal services may ensue in intercessions that normally draw kids into kid protection system. Such intercessions do non ever see the fiscal and societal state of affairss such parents find themselves, but used by societal work professionals in mode to follow with authorities statute law and the duty of protecti ng or safeguarding kids. For case, parents populating on meager income barely could prolong the household fiscal committednesss, or such parents may non see the legal deductions of populating kids entirely in the house for work, every bit frequently such kids are seen rolling the streets or go school dropouts due to hapless parental attention and support. Social worker s typical part for households populating in utmost poorness and sing societal exclusion is o employ empathy, communicating and relationship accomplishments to assist place and to admit issues of kid maltreatment ( Spratt et al 2004 ) . Intervention within the societal work procedure is non a inactive, snapshot or a holistic procedure whereby societal workers arrives at unequivocal reply to protect vulnerable kids from farther injury. However, the cardinal interpersonal accomplishments require of societal workers is the key to placing the possible causes of child maltreatment or ill-treatment in a household scene, through the edifice of appropriate relationship with the households and join forcesing with other interested bureaus ( Lloyd and Taylor, 1990 ) . Most frequently than non societal workers take ethnocentric and prejudice attack at the initial contact with African households accused of kid maltreatment and accordingly arrive at a judgemental determination. With the right relationship with African households involve in kid maltreatment instances societal work professionals are positive to understand the demands of such households and what type of intercession is appropriate to assist turn to their jobs. Inter vention accomplishments used by societal workers tantrums most easy into the traditional models in which societal work is normally taught to measure uping pupils, but less easy recognized as intercession by most societal workers one time in pattern. Arguably, the nucleus accomplishments of intercession have non been grasped in its entity rehearsing societal workers and hence are non consciously transferred across state of affairss where is most needful. 4.3 Intervening kid maltreatment Social work involves step ining kids and household s state of affairs and jobs through assessment of what information is available and what information is gathered from the household after ab initio measuring the household s fiscal and societal position, with coaction with other administrations and professionals working with the household. Many writers argue that societal worker should take households alleged of kid maltreatment through the intercession procedure, foregrounding and explicating the importance of working together to hold on the most appropriate intercession needed to convey societal alteration. Furthermore, societal workers use a scope of cognition, theoretical accounts and models to make up ones mind what method of intercession is needed to accomplish the coveted consequence. To guarantee that collated information from all quarters leads to informed intercession, societal workers need to set up working relationships of trust with African households and other professio nals. They must be able to understand the socio-economic position and rearing patterns of African households, through their ain cognition and accomplishment, or by pulling on that of others. Social workers acknowledgment and apprehension of parents behavioral forms, complicated with poorness, apprehension of diverse civilizations and edifice of good working relationships are critical to successful intercessions. There is grounds in the literature to propose that societal workers and other related professionals have trouble furthering good working relationship with black African households alleged of kid maltreatment instances as such households have no trust in the kid protection system. Therefore societal workers need to develop the necessity accomplishments and behaviors to understand the jobs of African households populating under the poorness line, and who may hold small or no cognition of the kid protection system in the UK. In acknowledgment of the troubles inherent in deploying effectual intercessions the Department of Health introduced the Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families ( DH 2000 ) . Macdonald ( 2002 ) notes the booby traps that arise when carry oning appraisals taking to societal work intercession. It is non merely simple to follow a model puting out the countries to be investigated, as societal workers need to exert professional opinion and be a lert to unconscious prejudice which may crawl into the work, falsifying appraisals and the grade of intercessions. 4.4 Social Work Intervention and environmental influences Bernard A ; Gupta ( 2008 ) literature reappraisal on black African kids and kid protection system stress the inauspicious effects of poorness and societal exclusion on rearing capacity and kids s development, which have been identified as a major factor in most households involved in attention proceedings ( Brophy et al, 2003 ) . African households are proportionately more likely to populate in poorness than bulk Whites in Britain as many undertake low-income paid occupations ( Kyambi, 2005 ) , have their rights to back up services withdrawn under subdivision 17 of the 1989 Children Act, ( Kholi, 2006 ) and income, employment chances and entree to back up services are determined by their in-migration and refuge position ( Bernard A ; Gupta, 2008 ) . The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, recognises the demand to protect kids who experience a disadvantaged childhood due to households populating in poorness, and requires authoritiess to guarantee all kids have an equal criterion of life as a basic right. The UN recognizes that want during childhood undermines the cardinal rights which kids, every bit good as grownups, should bask, including entree to identify services such as wellness, instruction and societal services ( Monteith A ; McLaughlin, 2005 ) . Available grounds shows that poorness and societal want during childhood has inauspicious effects on kids developments and bounds their capacity to make full potency and will perpetuate societal inequalities across coevalss within populations. The Labour authorities pledge to cut downing poorness in the state was a measure frontward to accomplish societal alteration among households, but did non explicitly specify the mark groups that are chiefly populating in utmost poorness. The Labour authorities s anti poorness scheme involves policies to increase the incomes of hapless households by bettering child-related benefits and revenue enhancement credits and the debut of a national lower limit pay. The authorities s Certain Start enterprise and the National Childcare Strategy in the UK provide low-cost child care proviso for working parents. Furthermore, the publication of the papers Every Child Matters set outs the authorities attack to the well-being of kids and immature people ( McLaughlin A ; Monteith 2005 ) . The certain start enterprise provides a batch of support to parents fighting to care for their kids, but the limited figure of subdivisions across the state merely seems to help the bulk white households. Bradshaw ( 2001 ) and Stewart A ; Hill ( 2005 ) argue that the authorities s kid poorness decrease schemes may be easier to accomplish in short-run footing but non accomplishing much in long term. The chief functionary working papers for many British kid protection societal workers is the Department of Health ( DoH ) , 1988 papers, Protecting Childs: A Guide for Social Workers set abouting a Comprehensive Appraisal, but has its restrictions when working with black African households ( Chands, 1999 ) . It is arguable to state that taking kids into public attention because their parents are non capable of supplying equal attention may be due to the backdown of all support services in conformity with subdivision 9 of the 2004 Asylum an Immigration Act ( Kelly A ; Meldgaard, 2005 ) . Evidence shows that basic physical attention that households are expected to supply for kids becomes limited by unequal lodging, unemployment, poorness, and societal exclusion peculiarly with black African households populating in poorness. It is argued that any assessment procedure that reflects the unequal proviso of attention as the failure of black people and as index of kid abuse instead than the effects of racial inequality is in itself racialist. Furthermore, as black African households are disadvantaged in many fortunes, it is arguable that they will confront higher degrees of hazard from the harmful effects of inappropriate societal work intercession and misjudgement ( Chands, 1999 ) . 4.5 Social Work Intervention and parental behavior The history of over-representation of black kids in the kid protection system, harmonizing to Chand ( 1999 ) dates back to the sixtiess. Research shows that black kids are speedy to come in into the kid protection system than their white opposite numbers, for grounds such as parenting behavior, civilization and societal and economic jobs. Many research work associating to the differences in child-rearing and poorness in the UK show that black African households are frequently at hazard of being stereotyped as non capable of rearing kids in the most appropriate manner. Therefore, societal workers have a duty to understand issues bordering the experiences of African kids at hazard of important injury, ad non to make the general feeling that all African households are non capable. Harmonizing to Chand ( 1999 ) despite the really noticeability of the diverseness of childhoods, we live and work in a society which tends to presume that there is merely one sort of childhood that is normal and ordinary ( Rogers, 1989, p. 97 ) . The issues of penalty, parental behavior and subject, complicated with poorness are controversial constructs among black African households populating in the UK, which frequently draw them into the sphere of kid protection system. Harmonizing to Bernard A ; Gupta ( 2008 ) , the literature that exists focuses on the African households where their parenting is deemed to be below the threshold of what is considered proper. This disfunction within African households can put on the line reproducing stereotypes of this group as deficient , therefore furthering a pathological point of view of African household relationship. It is widely accepted that black African household relationships with white societal workers working with them, is ever strained with misgiving and non-acceptance. Available research shows that ( Chands, 1999 ) , different child-rearing patterns, as a consequence of socio-economic position permeates different civilizations and societal workers working with households o f different cultural values and beliefs may see trouble in understanding what parental behavior are acceptable and non acceptable. Therefore, to separate whether a peculiar child-rearing pattern is aberrant to social norm, societal workers will ever hold to brood on the cognition acquired from both formal and informal preparation, experiences and their moral opinions, to use the most appropriate intercession procedure applicable to the household. Bernard A ; Gupta ( 2008 ) claims that African household relationships, like those of many minority cultural groups, are frequently constructed otherwise from the conventional atomic household theoretical account that exist in the bulk civilization in modern-day Britain. Cultural values and more significantly poverty influence the lives of many black African kids and their households involved in the kid protection system ( Thorburn et al, 2005 ) . In order for societal workers to set up a good working relationship when working with black A frican households and kids populating in poorness, Chands ( 1999 ) argues that it is paramount for societal workers to hold a sound cognition and apprehension of what is acceptable and unacceptable parental behavior within the cultural background of the households. If non, societal workers may step in in alleged kid maltreatment instances unsuitably. There are a few informations on the impact of poorness and cultural values in act uponing outlooks, motives, functions and attacks to rearing and comprehending what constitutes harmful behaviors ( Barn et al. , 2006 ) . It is problematic to specify in specific footings how kids should be subject from the position points of parents and professionals and what type and grade of penalties are deem appropriate for a misbehaving kid. Barn et Al ( 2006 ) findings show that African households do non penalize their kids any different from the bulk white households and that there is no grounds of utilizing more terrible physical penalty ( Thorburn et al. , 2005 ) . However, research shows that propertyless white households presumptively employ more slap, which is a signifier of physical penalty, in an effort to pull off kids behaviors and bodily penalty is still practise in schools outside the province sector, which are chiefly occupied by middle-class kids. Yet in general, as the huge bulk of African parents use physical penalty as a signifier of subject to pull off their kids behaviors, they are necessarily alleged of mistreating their kids ( Chands, 1999 ) . These are related to their cultural background, their socio-economic position, and their ain personalities ( Phillips A ; Dutt 2000 ) . For illustration, Ellis ( 2006 ) maintained that in African civilization there is small fondling and caressing of babies and any sort of fondling Michigans when the kid is coggling. Black Africans express their fondness and love in a different manner, through good physical attending, such as bathing, skin-care and hair-care ( Chands, 1999 ) . This illustrates the necessity to understand different civilizations in order to guard against misunderstandings of rearing behavior, and to inquire why a black African parent may non be demoing any obvious marks of fondness towards their kid. Furthermore, the unrealistic outlook by white societal workers should be intelligibly measured in the visible radiation of the parents anxiousness about their kids s hereafter sing the poorness degrees of many black African kids populating the United Kingdom ( Beranard A ; Gupta 2006 ) . With respect to duty and independency, many research shows that most white societal workers seem to follow euro-centric attack when working with black African kids and their households ( Chands, 1999 ) . In consequence black African kids are either non protected because they are seen to be able to get by with state of affairss non deemed appropriate for white kids, or where black African kids are non taking on similar duties to their white opposite numbers they are deemed to be at hazard of maltreatment or want ( Chands, 1999 ) . For case, the issue of older siblings caring for younger 1s in the instance with many black African households may be decisive in the workers appraisal of hazard of important injury to the kid. Harmonizing to Chands ( 1999 ) there is the demand to oppugn why this should be when a high degree of both duty and independency by the older sibling can be clearly demonstrated. It must be emphasized hence that although kid maltreatment occurs in all races and civil izations, workers must guard against sing suspected maltreatment through the norms and values of their ain background. A farther point is that black African households involuntariness or opposition to the appraisal and intercession procedure employ by societal workers working on alleged kid maltreatment instances should non be seen as grounds of guilt, as the system may be new to them or a good working relationship is non at that place. Finally, Chands ( 1999 ) explains that in order to do the intercession procedure fairer for all black African households, it is necessary for bulk white workers and establishments to understand that most black African parents may be less cognizant of kid protection processs, may be populating in poorness, and their experience in the UK do them more susceptible to the kid protection system. Some research workers have identified the importance of understanding how poverty complicate different cultural values, which in many instances explains the motive behind parental actions when pull offing unacceptable behaviors of their kids ( Barn et al, 2006 ) and in their resear ch on normative parenting there is no important differences between cultural groups with respect to physical penalty of kids ( Bernard A ; Gupta, 2008 ) . Chapter FIVE IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE There is some grounds in the literature to propose that societal workers and other professionals struggle to pull off the complex demands and societal fortunes of many African households ( Bernard A ; Gupta, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to Hayes A ; Spratt ( 2008 ) , societal workers are more engage with kid protection work, but non in manner that is readily understood by those who legislate, set policy and step public presentation. Social workers may miss the necessary tools to adequately distinguish boundary line instances from bad instances, twosome with hapless coaction with other professionals, sorting certain parenting patterns as politically and ethically unacceptable and their ain personal cultural values, they turn to route all boundary line kid maltreatment instances through the kid protection processes. It might look self-contradictory that in recent old ages societal workers, who are seen as the force for conformance, are often criticized for moving more in the involvements of society than in the involvements of service users. However, when societal workers relate more with households than merely taking to accomplish authorities s mark, they build good working relationships with those they serve and help emancipate them from subjugation, poorness and societal want. Therefore, societal workers prosecuting more with methods of intercession which liberate kids and their households from poorness, want and societal exclusion are truly working to the rules and moralss of societal work pattern as defined by IFSW in modern-day Britain. Social work professionals about ever draw entirely on sociology and political scientific discipline cognition base, believing that persons can be entirely human merely within the context of a benign environment and a merely societal order. Evidence shows that altering the societal system of African households who suffer subjugation through poorness and societal exclusion by authorising them, non merely means emancipating them from societal unfairness, but besides advancing household self-respect and felicity. Harmonizing to Bernard A ; Gupta ( 2008 ) the poorness and societal fortunes experience by many African households pose challenges for parents and kids, every bit good as societal work professionals working to safeguard and advance kids public assistance. Therefore, it is the demand of the societal workers to see African households poorness and societal fortunes before make up ones minding on what intercession procedure will most assist alter their life. Recent authorities s a ttempts to alter the nonsubjective societal work from possibly overemphasizes on kid protection docket to a more preventive attack in alleged kid maltreatment instances, have non wholly favoured African households populating in poorness who are accuse of being deficient in their child-rearing behaviors. Social workers constantly experience the quandary of taking between directing attempts to child public assistance procedure or kid protection procedure and non see kids endure farther maltreatment under the context of poorness. The broader development of the new theoretical positions based on systems theory will help societal work professionals working with kids and African households to see a more specific position of their functions and to assist develop effectual relationships with African households with the position of understanding their single, emotional every bit good as societal demands. A deficiency of good relationship with African households will adversely impact on societal workers ability to understand their parenting behaviors so as to use the appropriate method of intercession ( Bernard A ; Gupta, 2008 ) . There are four chief grounds for the demand for a new position. 5.1 Policy alterations ensuing in a alteration in method of intercession The policy environment to which societal work pattern relates continues to alter to convey about the necessary societal alteration. Harmonizing to Platt ( 2006 ) persistent demands on societal workers from the authorities and including unequal staff, the bureaucratism and cardinal authorities marks, and policies on refugees and refuge searchers, creates trouble for societal work to offer a broad scope of household support services. Research shows that many African households may profit more when they are routed off from kid protection system towards child public assistance services ( Hayes A ; Spratt, 2008 ) . However, the authorities s response to Lord Laming s Report in Every Child Matters following the decease of Victoria Climbie, has strengthen kid protection and increase the figure of instances routed through kid public assistance processes. Therefore it is of import for societal workers to subject rearing patterns influenced by poorness to thorough examination during assessmen t procedure to assist accomplish better results for African kids. Poverty can make signifiers of disempowerment for kids when it is used to warrant parental behaviors and patterns that violate their right ( Bernard A ; Gupta, 2008 ) . Further to this point, societal workers sometimes face opposition when measuring rearing jobs, and more significantly their opinions about what should be see as important injury, when parents use poorness as a yardstick for their behaviors. Chand ( 1999 ) argue that due to the big figure of instances of kid maltreatment and child protection issues among black African kids and households, societal workers should take the enterprise and be proactive by interceding with the households they serve, informing them about where they draw their boundaries. 5.2 Changes in the cognition and accomplishment base As with any profession there are both new attacks and new apprehensions about the effectivity of specific intercessions. Investing in research and the airing of cognition and accomplishments in wellness remains vast greater than in societal attention. But the strengthening of these resources in societal work and societal attention should ensue in more cognition based pattern and direction in the medium and long term. The instance for recognizing different beginnings of cognition has been made and the multiplicity of information collected in assorted sections need to include that produced through the experience and expertness of people utilizing the services and front line workers every bit good as from research. Harmonizing to Chand ( 1999 ) developing either officially or informally, is of import for societal workers working with black African households with child-rearing issues since it can raise the issue of how black African households meet their kids needs otherwise. The prepar ation should be integrated into the societal work developing course of studies in higher instruction and this would broaden the apprehension of pupils which may chase away some of the myths around black African households and their child-rearing patterns and relieve the potency of pathologizing them in kid attention patterns ( Chand, 1999 ) . 5.3 Technological and structural alterations Recent technological alterations, designation of spreads in cognition and skills new countries of working are emerging which is ensuing in the proviso of services falling behind service demands. For case planetary motions have necessitated the demand for societal workers to work with African kids and households migrating to the UK with bing hapless backgrounds, to work with asylum searchers or refugees get awaying from ain states in political convulsion or at war ( Newburn, 1993 ) . New engineerings and the turning acquaintance of the populace in utilizing societal public assistance services opens up new signifiers of intercessions peculiarly to help African households populating poorness in the UK. In countries where there is rapid development or new issues with societal work pattern there is the necessity in progress of theory. Schemes in these fortunes may include reassigning bing cognition and accomplishments to the new country, pulling on any international experience and expertn ess, networking to portion and larn from experience and research on demands and effectual responses. Initially these may necessitate to be done individually to construction a different position before it is possible to convey experience and larning together in new ways. 5.4 Multi organisational or Partnership Intervention For intercession to run into the needed mark, it all depends on proper initial appraisal, but many of the appraisal tools that are employ such as DoH ( 2000 ) Model for the Assessment of kids in demand and their households may disfavor black African households due to the Eurocentric attack of societal workers. Research shows that partnership is needed to encompass both good working relationships and appropriate intercession procedure ( Chand, 1999 ) . Against this background, kids in demand may be given preventive supports and will forestall vulnerable kids from maltreatment or ill-treatment. Therefore greater attending should be given to back up professional societal work pattern, and safeguarding the value base, the relationship and the procedure of good pattern, expertness of societal workers and related professions. 5.5 Deductions and issues for considerations Recent surveies on African households and the kid protection system show that these households are disproportionately represented at different degrees in the kid attention system. The bing intercession tools for societal work pattern are grounded within ethnocentric epistemologies and, as the foundation for societal work theory and pattern, are non good equipped for the undertaking of fostering and developing African households and their kids. This is apparent, for illustration, in the sustained over-representation of black kids in the attention system and in the deficiency of supportive societal work services designed to run into their demands. It is hence of import for the development of new theoretical positions based on systems theory to assist societal workers who work with African kids and households. This will enable societal workers to take a broader position of their function and to develop a graphic perceptual experience of rearing behaviors and patterns of these households which are complicated with poorness so that a more appropriate method of intercession are employed in their opinion. The utmost poorness experience by many African households pose challenges for societal workers working to safeguard and advance kids s public assistance ( Bernard and Gupta, 2008 ) . The Model for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families ( Department of Health, 2000 ) based on the ecological attack places a demand on societal workers to besides see the low income position of parents when step ining instances of kid maltreatment. These attacks provide an indispensable model for work with African kids and households, both in footings of the context of their lives and the procedure of the work being undertaken. In order to safeguard and advance the public assistance of West African kids, a starting point must be an recognition of beginnings of ill-treatment of kids in the context of poorness ( Bernard and Gupta, 2006 ) . The thesis highlights the importance of societal workers sing the poorness state of affairss of many African households who have immigrated to the United Kingdom, peculiarly those who have late arrived into the state. Most of the African households may be asylum searchers or refugees with insecure societal position and may hold really limited apprehension of the kid protection or public assistance province system in the UK ( Bernard A ; Gupta, 2008 ) . Therefore merely through developing effectual relationships with African kids and their households can societal workers begin to understand their single quandaries every bit good as their socio-economic demands. A deficiency of an effectual agencies of communicating will doubtless impact on societal workers ability to deploy competent intercessions within African kids and households. In footings of societal work intercession procedure, several writers have critically analysed the grounds on service proviso for black African households in general, in an effort to understand the kineticss of working with economically deprived cultural minority ( Dutt and Phillips, 2000 ; ONeale, 2000 ) . The pathologizing attack adopted by bulk societal workers towards African households may take to unnecessarily coercive intercession but, an income relativist attack may take to no intercession subjecting vulnerable kids to farther injury ( Chand, 1999 and ONeale, 2000 ) . The acceptance of a shortage position can skew societal work intercessions into rearing behavior and patterns when measuring African households and kids populating in utmost poorness who are enduring to supply equal child-care. However, it is of import to observe that utilizing poorness as one factor to understand and warrant parenting behaviors and patterns, is non merely plenty to explicate why some African households will pattern certain behaviors, whilst others will non ( Dutt and Phillips, 2000 ; Fontes, 2005 ) . However, holding socio-economic frames of mentions to pull on can assist rear go more resilient to economic hardship and this can supply a positive environment for advancing kids s emotional and societal development. Yet, poorness can besides make signifiers of disempowerment for kids when it is used to warrant parental behaviors and patterns that violate their human rights. Social workers, working with African households, may meet some opposition to their methods of intercession of rearing jobs and, in peculiar, their judgements about what constitute important injury, when parents use poorness as an account for their parenting behavior ( Shor, 2000 ) . Importantly, subjecting household income position to scrutiny is a necessary tool of the appraisal procedure if societal workers are to step in efficaciously so as to accomplish better results for African kids. In many senses, a balance should be struck between sensitively disputing claims that certain types of behaviors are considere d as socially acceptable in African civilization because they are hapless whilst at the same clip non losing sight of the proviso of preventive support to households that need it. An added bed of complication is the demand to safeguard kids s public assistance by disputing poverty-related patterns that are harmful to kids without needfully pathologizing all their parents care-giving patterns ( Platt, 2006 ) . Built-in in kid protection work is the balance between protecting kids at hazard of important injury, whilst at the same clip guaranting minimum unneeded intercession into the lives of kids and households. Although there are about 6,000 African kids in private Foster places in this state, and they likely represent a bulk of all in private fostered kids in the UK ( Bernard A ; Gupta, 2006 ) . Social workers must non merely be skilled in judging what methods of intercessions to use within the scope of their ain competency, but they must be able to judge the fortunes under which these methods are either insufficient or irrelevant to the aims they wish to accomplish. This is peculiarly true in fortunes where resources are unequal and the Government want to cut down the figure of kids traveling into attention. It becomes evident therefore that societal workers have to be concerned with the entire web of societal proviso, and should lend to policy preparation. Specht ( 2002 ) argues that the call for societal workers to get into the political sphere nevertheless, temporarily animating is likely to go forth many experiencing unequal. Specht ( 2002 ) besides pointed out that policy preparation is a procedure that entails many different undertakings and functions, and that all professionals can larn to lend to the procedure in whatever is the most appropriate manner for them. Th e mode in which Specht ( 2002 ) classifies societal work functions and specific undertakings, based as it is on the American experience in 1967, may non exactly fit into the current state of affairs in the UK. Nevertheless, the point that all societal workers, no affair what places they occupy or what methods of societal work intercession they employ, can and should play a portion in policy preparation still holds good.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Idioms and Expressions - Eye The following idioms and expressions use the noun eye. Each idiom or expression has a definition and two example sentences to help withÃ these common idiomatic expressions. Apple of Someones Eye The expressionÃ apple of my eyeÃ is often used when referring to family members, or those who are closest to us to mean that they are someones favorite person or object. Jennifer is the apple of her fathers eye. Hes so proud of her. My Mercedes is the apple of my eye. Birds-eye View Birds-eye viewÃ refers to a viewpoint from which one can see a wide area. This idiomÃ is often used figuratively to mean that someone can see a situation from a wider perspective. His birds-eye view of the market will help us beat our competitors. The hotel provides a lovely birds-eye view over the bay. Catch Someones Eye Catch someones eye indicates that someone or something hasÃ gained attention. I caught the servers eye. Hell be with us shortly. That house on Elm street certainly caught my eye. Should we talk a look inside? Cry Ones Eyes Out Crying ones eyes outÃ is an idiom used for very sad events in ones life. It means toÃ cry for a very long time in a desperate manner such as at the loss of a loved one. I think you just need to cry your eyes out to get it all out of your system. Marias crying her eyes out. I wonder what happened? Eagle Eye Someone with anÃ eagle eyeÃ hasÃ the ability to see important details and notice mistakes. Show it to the editor. She has an eagle eye and will catch any mistake. Luckily, Toms eagle eye saw the discounted sweater I was looking for. Feast Ones Eyes on Something If you feast your eyes on something,Ã youÃ enjoy the sight of something. This idiom is often used to boast about a possession of which you are very proud. Feast your eyes on my new watch. Isnt it beautiful?! I cant stop feasting my eyes on my new car. Get a Black Eye If you get a black eye, youÃ receive a bruise from something around the eye. This idiom canÃ also be used figuratively to mean to suffer a defeat. I got a black eye when I bumped into the door. I guess we got a black eye trying to compete with that big corporation. Get Stars in Ones Eyes Some young people get stars in their eyesÃ because theyÃ become obsessed about show business. Ever since Janet got the lead role in the high school play, shes got stars in her eyes. Just because you are handsome doesnt mean you need to get stars in your eyes. Give Someone the Eye People will run whenÃ you give them the eyeÃ because youÃ look at someone in an accusatory or disapproving manner. The teacher was giving me the eye during the test. I guess he thought I might cheat. Dont give me the eye! Youre the one who caused this mess. Have Eyes Bigger than Your Stomach Unfortunately, its easy to put on weight if youÃ have eyes bigger than your stomachÃ because youÃ desire more food than you can eat. Little children tend to have eyes bigger than their stomachs. I remember one crazy night when my best friend had eyes bigger than his stomach. He ordered more than six different meals! Have Eyes in the Back of Ones Head If you have eyes in the back of your head, you areÃ be able to see what is going on. This can be frustrating because others might think they are being secretive and are not noticed. My mom had eyes in the back of her head. I never got away with anything. Do you have eyes in the back of your head? How did you notice that? Hit the Bulls-eye When a person hits the bulls-eye,Ã theyÃ hit the center of the target. This expression is also used figuratively to express an impressive result. I think we hit the bulls-eye with our new product line. Youve hit the bulls-eye by getting that job. In the Public Eye If you are in the public eye, you areÃ in a position where the public can observe your actions, so be very careful! Youll be in the public eye if you take that job. Hollywood actors are all in the public eye. Keep Ones Eye on the Ball People who canÃ keep their eye on the ballÃ remain concentrated, especially in a work situation. You need to keep your eye on the ball, no matter how long it takes, to succeed. His ability to keep his eye on the ball assured his eventual success. Turn a Blind Eye to Someone or Something Unfortunately, some people turn a blind eye to someoneÃ and show that they areÃ willingly to ignoreÃ something wrong. Just turn a blind eye to Ted. Hell never change. Im going to turn a blind eye to that problem for the moment. Without Batting an Eye Most parents help their children without batting an eyeÃ because theyÃ do it without hesitation. He purchased the $2 million home without batting an eye. John made the decision without batting an eye. Idioms With Eye Quiz FIll in the gaps with a word to complete these sentences with expressions usingÃ eye: Our boss has an ______ eye because he catches mistakes that others miss.Lets take a ______ view of this situation to make sure we dont miss anything.Its surprising how many young people get ______ in their eyes and move to Hollywood to start a career.I ordered this cake, but its too much. Im afraid I have eyes that are bigger than my ______.My daughter is the ______ of my eye.I think you hit the ______ when you made that investment. Today, you are a millionaire!She gave her daughter $500 without ______ an eye because she trusts her to spend it wisely.Would you please stop giving me the ______! Youre making me nervous!I got a ______ eye when I fell last week.Politicians are always in the ______ eye.Ã Answers eaglebirds-eyestarsstomachapplebulls-eyebattingeyeblackpublic
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Utopia - Essay Example Sargent starts by pointing at the need for utopia for individuals in the society. But the utopia Sargent envisages is not that which presents a perfect state as this is impossible in the contemporary world. Instead, he describes utopia to be situations that strive to better humanity and give hope to individuals. The critical thing in her redefinition is not the perfect states but a better state, which sees the betterment of all situations and circumstances. A good life gives hope to those leading it and provides quality for human life, it is so critical because when people lose hope they lose their worthiness of life. In these situations humanity stares at extinction as a hopeless generation has no future. Sargent stresses that utopia is not at fault but what is at fault is the notion that there only exists one type of utopia. This is because there exists three segments of utopia that are the design or theory, the utopian movement and the utopian studies (Sargent 11-17). Sargent poin ts at the need for humanity to sustain hope; hope is the gateway to a better life and a wonderful future. Sargent points out that the link between a successful life and a life of despair is the ability of humanity to cling to hope. If one ever loses this vital component then they lose their sight on a bright future, which would definitely lead to betterment of life. According to Sargent utopia is the mother of humanitarian movements, these seek to ensure a better society by facing off with retrogressive groupings or practices in the society. Another example of a believer in utopia is John W. Friesen and Virginia Agnes Lyons Friesen who detail existence of several different utopian societies. Through their book The Palgrave Companion to North American Utopias, the two authors assert that every human being in the past and in the current aspires to live in a utopian society. The illustration of this statement is given by citing a number of utopian North America societies. They go furth er to point that achieving a utopia society is possible at least to the extent of Sargents definition, the way to achieve such a society is well detailed in their book (Friesen & Friesen). Defining Utopia brings more problems than it solves, as people have different conceptions on what it is and how it can be defined. Some of the definitions that have been forwarded define utopia as a creation of the mind where people and systems act and operate efficiently. In trying to define utopia other related terms come into the limelight such as dystopia and anti utopia. Dystopia is the extreme opposite of utopia and represents a situation where all things and people are messy. However, Sargent holds that utopia is not an extreme condition of goodness but a more realistic situation of a better society or situations. Situations that give people a chance to better their lives and embrace change which is beneficial to them. The ability to better lives and embrace change is the drive behind socia l movements which share in the dream of a utopian community. These movements seek to help people embrace change and motivate them to better their lives by remaining hopeful. This also explains why these movements seek to be all inclusive, because they hold that unification is not a divided calling but an inclusive call which seeks to integrate humanity in entirety. Dystopia also becomes an integral situation in defining a utopian state as dystopia represents a situ